Dermatology and venereology
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Dermatology and venereology

With the area of 1.5 - 2 sq. m in adult individual, the skin is one of the biggest organs in the body. In 1 sq. cm of the skin in statistically average there are more than 4,200 sweat glands, 130 blood vessels, 390,000 cells forming melamine, and more than 6,500 nerve terminals.

 

Though its three layers – hypodermis, derma and epidermis, the skin preforms various functions:

1.    Protection
the skin serves as anatomic barrier between the underlying muscles, organs and bones and the hazardous agents of environment – ultraviolet radiation, microorganisms, etc.. 

2.    Thermal regulation 

      The widened blood vessels of skin accelerate the irrigation and heat loss, and the narrowed vessels preserve them .

3.    Sensory ability

      The skin is enormous receptor field – it contains great number of nerve terminals which react to temperature changes, touch, vibrations and tissue lesions.

4.    Control of seating and regulation of water balance

      The skin is a barrier against loss of liquids – without the horny skin layer the loss of water in the body would grow many times (10-20 times).

5.    Reservoir function of skin blood vessels and metabolism 
Together with liver, intestines, lymph system, kidneys and mucous membranes, the skin has an important role in detoxication. The skin is the first organ displaying the shortness of nutrition substances - 30% of the body blood circulation system pass through the skin.

6.    Excretion properties

     The sweat contains urea with lower concentration than in urine and the excretion of urea is rather a secondary mechanism for thermal regulation.

7.    Aesthetics 

      The clear healthy skin is generally accepted indication for good physical condition and is a factor of attractiveness in the eyes of those around.

 

Skin diseases 

The subject of medical specialty "dermatology and venereology " is more than 1200 different skin and sexually transmitted diseases:

·         Virus infections of skin and mucous membrane – herpes simplex, herpes Zoster, virus warts, condyloma, molluscum verrucosum, HIV, Kaposi's sarcoma

·         Eczema and nettle rush

·         Atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis

·         Acne and rosacea

·        Diseases of hairs, diseases of nails, diseases of mouth mucous membrane   

·         Sexually transmitted infections – bacterial, mycotic, virus and protozoan 

·         Occupational dermatosis and contact dermatitis 

·         Psoriasis

·         Medication dermatosis, autoimmune bullous dermatosis, vessel dermatosis and photodermatosis

·         Erythema multiforme

·         Pityriasis rubra pilaris

·         Pink lichen and lichen ruber planus

·         Diseases of connective tissue 

·         Chromatosis

·         Vasculitis

·         Antiphospholipid syndrome

·         Pre-malignant conditions and и malignant skin tumours

·         Pyodermia

·         Skin tuberculosis

·         Lyme disease

 

Symptoms

It is recommended to consult physician dermatologist is any of the symptoms listed below occurs:

·         Pain – smarting or burning sensation 

·         Itching that can be either temporary or permanent 

·         Functional lesion 

 

The symptoms may be isolated in separate areas – single lesions or spread like rash.