The eyes are the peripheral part of the whole vision body consisting also of transmitting and central parts. The eyes fulfil important sensing and cognitive functions of vision – by eyes the individual perceives images and sends them to the brain where they are deciphered.
The diseases of eyes and its appendages require specialised medical care and their treatment is carried out by ophthalmologist. The diseases may be inflammatory and non-inflammatory, structural and functional, of traumatic or degenerative nature. Frequent eye diseases:
· Short-sightedness and far-sightedness
The most spread causes for impaired vision are refraction problems- the eye ability to refract and focus the light radiation on the retina is reduced. Such conditions are available in more than 30% of individuals. The short-sightedness (myopia) and the far-sightedness (hypermetropia) are due to the changes in the refraction ability of cornea.
This condition related to an eye defect. It is due to changes in the cornea shape which results in incorrect refraction of light rays, and from that - incorrect focusing and unclear image. Usually this condition is inborn. As the short-sightedness and far-sightedness, it may be corrected by wearing glasses, contact lenses or by refractive surgery intervention.
· Diseases of eyelids, lacrimal passages and orbit
By impairing the protection function of eyelids, the eye can easily become susceptible to harmful external factors and this is why it is important to have medical treatment for them.
· Conjunctivitis and other diseases of conjunctiva
The role of conjunctival membrane is related to the mobility of the eyeball and the protection against infection. The conjunctivitis is among the most frequently met eye diseases and it can appear under the influence of different infectious and non-infectious agents. The symptoms for the different types are overlapping – reddening, watering and pain with the sense that foreign body is present. .
More seldom diseases of conjunctiva are pinguecula, pterygium, and xerosis of conjunctiva.
· Inflammation of cornea - keratitis
It may b due both to bacterial and virus agent. Clinically it appears as impairment of cornea transparency with sudden ache, eye watering and photophobia because of the risk for resinous disturbances in eye functions, the disease requires emergent medical care.
This is clouding of lenses also called “senile curtain“. Most frequently, it appears in patients over 60 years old, but it cam also occur at younger age as a result of other disorder – trauma, diabetes, hypertension, strong short-sightedness.
The main risk factors include the presence of far-sightedness and heredity. The diagnosis of the disease is based on the indicators for intraocular pressure, the condition of optic nerve and the field of view state. This e is the second widely spread eye diseases that results in blindness, but compared to more frequently met cataract, the loss of vision here is irretrievable.
· Optical nerve neuritis
The neuritis is inflammatory disease that may be caused by various reasons and develops in 2 forms – papillitis and retrobulbar neuritis. Quite often it is related to systemic diseases of central nervous system, with infectious or metabolic diseases. The main symptom of the disease is impaired vision function connected with lack of colour perception.
· Retinal detachment and tear
The consultation with specialist ophthalmologist outside the regular prevention examinations is recommended, if the following symptoms appear:
· Blurred vision
The disorder in the vision acuity may be related to a number of ophthalmologic disease, traumatic consequences of head bruises, brain disorders, autoimmune diseases, endocrine and vascular diseases, etc.
· Irritation and pain
The discomfort in the eye sometimes accompanied by burning sense, itching, watering or dryness may be related both to harmless causes – overload or presence of eyelash, and to particular diseases.